And in the one mode or the other, the legislative and executive powers might speedily come to be blended in the same hands.In either case, the EXECUTION of the business, which alone requires the knowledge of local details, must be devolved upon discreet persons in the character of commissioners or assessors, elected by the people or appointed by the government for the purpose.Should abuses creep into one part, they are reformed by those that remain sound.The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles For the Independent Journal.
There is in every breast a sensibility to marks of honor, of favor, of esteem, and of confidence, which, apart from all considerations of interest, is some pledge for grateful and benevolent returns.The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Hamilton From the New York Packet Friday, January 4, 1788 35 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Hamilton For the Independent Journal - - 36 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Hamilton From the New York Packet Tuesday, January 8, 1788 37.If it be a public trust or office, in which they are clothed with equal dignity and authority, there is peculiar danger of personal emulation and even animosity.
In the first place, as they will have been distinguished by the preference of their fellow-citizens, we are to presume that in general they will be somewhat distinguished also by those qualities which entitle them to it, and which promise a sincere and scrupulous regard to the nature of their engagements.And what are the different classes of legislators but advocates and parties to the causes which they determine.The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September 1787.It may be in me a defect of political fortitude, but I acknowledge that I cannot entertain an equal tranquillity with those who affect to treat the dangers of a longer continuance in our present situation as imaginary.
It will accordingly appear, that though not exempt from a similar catastrophe, it by no means equally deserved it.In these critical moments, how salutary will be the interference of some temperate and respectable body of citizens, in order to check the misguided career, and to suspend the blow meditated by the people against themselves, until reason, justice, and truth can regain their authority over the public mind.A design was also conceived of establishing a general tax to be administered by the federal authority.The circumstances of a revolution quickened the public sensibility on every point connected with the security of popular rights, and in some instances raise the warmth of our zeal beyond the degree which consisted with the due temperature of the body politic.But if one national government, had not so regulated the navigation of Britain as to make it a nursery for seamen--if one national government had not called forth all the national means and materials for forming fleets, their prowess and their thunder would never have been celebrated.But there is another circumstance of great importance in the view of economy.Some of her counties, which elect her State representatives, are almost as large as her districts will be by which her federal representatives will be elected.Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention From the New York Packet.
The Achaean league, as it is called, was another society of Grecian republics, which supplies us with valuable instruction.The system of quotas and requisitions, whether it be applied to men or money, is, in every view, a system of imbecility in the Union, and of inequality and injustice among the members.And where there is an IMMEDIATE common interest, we may safely count upon its operation.
It is well worthy of consideration therefore, whether it would conduce more to the interest of the people of America that they should, to all general purposes, be one nation, under one federal government, or that they should divide themselves into separate confederacies, and give to the head of each the same kind of powers which they are advised to place in one national government.The very existence of it has been made a question among political antiquaries.And she is warned by others against following this advice under pain of the most fatal consequences.It has been represented, on this account, as a power odious in appearance, useless in practice.An absolute or qualified negative in the executive upon the acts of the legislative body, is admitted, by the ablest adepts in political science, to be an indispensable barrier against the encroachments of the latter upon the former.Would she not have been compelled to raise and to maintain a more regular force for the execution of her design.The magistracy, being equally the ministers of the law of the land, from whatever source it might emanate, would doubtless be as ready to guard the national as the local regulations from the inroads of private licentiousness.All conspiracies and plots against the government, which have not been matured into actual treason, may be screened from punishment of every kind, by the interposition of the prerogative of pardoning.
The extent, modifications, and objects of the federal authority are mere matters of discretion.Where a man in any station had given satisfactory evidence of his fitness for it, a new President would be restrained from attempting a change in favor of a person more agreeable to him, by the apprehension that a discountenance of the Senate might frustrate the attempt, and bring some degree of discredit upon himself.Every institution will grow and flourish in proportion to the quantity and extent of the means concentred towards its formation and support.The fourth topic expanded into detailed coverage of the individual articles of the Constitution and the institutions it mandated, while the two last topics were merely touched on in the last essay.Under the successors of these princes, however, a different policy prevailed.Would it have been an improvement of the plan, to have united the Supreme Court with the Senate, in the formation of the court of impeachments.The first open designation of which essay belonged to whom was provided by Hamilton, who in the days before his ultimately fatal gun duel with Aaron Burr provided his lawyer with a list detailing the author of each number.
A third does not object to the government over individuals, or to the extent proposed, but to the want of a bill of rights.The federal Constitution, therefore, decides with great propriety on the case of our slaves, when it views them in the mixed character of persons and of property.When, therefore, mention is made in the subsequent reasonings of an assembly or body of men, what is said must be understood to relate to a select body or assembly, of the description already given.Power controlled or abridged is almost always the rival and enemy of that power by which it is controlled or abridged.In the third place, those ties which bind the representative to his constituents are strengthened by motives of a more selfish nature.How shall we prevent a conflict between charity and judgment.
On the other side, the executive power being restrained within a narrower compass, and being more simple in its nature, and the judiciary being described by landmarks still less uncertain, projects of usurpation by either of these departments would immediately betray and defeat themselves.All that they ask is that equal moderation be shown on the other side.Hence it is that history furnishes us with so many mortifying examples of the prevalency of foreign corruption in republican governments.